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Geleneksel Tıbbın Merkezinde Sağlık Vardır

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Geleneksel Tıbbın Merkezinde Sağlık Vardır

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Kanıta Dayalı Geleneksel Tıp – Yazı Dizisi 2

Geleneksel Tıp’ta Tedavinin Mantığı

Uygulamalar mizaç dengesini kurmak için yapılır. Eğer vücutta bir organ da bir hılt normalden fazla ise azaltmak için, azsa arttırmak için müdahale tercih edilir. Veya fazla olan hılt olması gereken bölgeye yönlendirilir.

Tabiat teorisi sosyologların, felsefecilerin, coğrafyacıların ve gök bilimcilerin tarih boyu faydalandığı önemli bir kuramdır. Örneğin Sosyolojinin kurucusu İbn Haldun toplumların özelliklerinin, yaşadıkları coğrafyanın mizacından etkilendiğini vurgular.

Hıltlar sabit değildir. Vücutta hılt oranları ömrün farklı dönemlerinde çeşitlilik gösterir. Bebeklikte nemli, gençlikte sıcak ihtiyarlıkta ise kurudur.  Bu sebeple yaşlılık döneminde kuru olan mizacı dengelemek için nemli gıdaların tüketimi tavsiye edilir. Örneğin, salatalık nemli gıdaların başında gelir.

Geleneksel Tıp Hekimi Nasıl Yetişir?

Geleneksel tıp hekimi günümüzdeki gibi uzun bir eğitimden sonra icazet (diploma) alırdı. Pek çok hekim yaşadığı şehirden ayrılmak zorunda kalır; başka ülkelerde tanınmış usta hekimlerin eğitimini almak için uzun seyahatler yapardı. Geleneksel Tıp hekimi aynı zamanda bir seyyahtı. Bu sebeple pek çok insan Şam, Bağdat ve İstanbul gibi yerleri ziyaret etmiştir. Bu Avrupa hekimleri için de böyleydi, mutlaka eğitim almak için tıbbın bu merkezlerine uğrarlardı.

Hekimin eğitimi bütüncüldü. Eğitim küçük yaşta başlar ve felsefe, ahlak, İslam bilimleri, astronomi, coğrafya gibi temel bilimlere yer verilirdi. Hekim zamanının tam bir entelektüeliydi. Bu yüzden geleneksel hekimlerin farklı alanlarda yazdığı makale ve kitaplara rastlamak mümkündür.

Hekimler yeteneklerine göre seçilir; usta hekimler çoğu zaman yeteneklerine güvenmediği adayları geri çevirirlerdi. Kabul edilen hekim adayları usta hekimler yanında uzun süre hasta bakar, klinik gözlemlerde bulunurlardı. Mezun olan hekimler eğitimleri boyunca yüzlerce farklı hasta görmüş olurlardı ve bu eğitim hiçbir zaman sona ermezdi.

Eski hekimler öncellikle halkın bilinçlenmesi ve hekimlerin faydalanması için yazdıkları kitapları tecrübelerinin olgunlaştığı yaşlarda kaleme alırlardı. Bunlardan en önemlisi Anadolu Türk Beyliği dönemi hekimlerinden ve Bursa’da yaşayan meşhur Tabip İbn Şerif’tir. Ömrü boyunca sayısız hekim yetiştirmiş ve kendisinden sonra defalarca referans gösterilen değerli tıp kitabı Yadigâr’ı yazmıştır. Bu tıp kitabında hastalıklar halkın anlayabileceği, sade bir dille yazılmıştır. Tabip İbni Şerif bu değerli eseriyle sağlık hizmetlerinin ulaşmadığı yerlerde halkın kendi başına tedavi olabilmesini amaçlamıştır.

Hastane mi, Şifahane mi?

Geleneksel Tıp hekimleri şifahanelerde görev yaparlardı. Şifahaneler, bakacak kimsesi olmayan gariplerin bakım eviydi. Hastalar yaşadıkları ortamlarda muayene ve tedavi görürlerdi. Dolayısıyla hekim hastanın ayağına giderdi. Formal eğitim almış hekimlerin olmadığı yerlerde tedavileri halk içinden, hekimlerin uygulamalarına tanık olmuş tecrübe sahibi kişiler üstlenirdi. Bunlara ise ‘Halk Hekimi’ adı verilirdi. Hekimler gibi gelişmiş ve düzenli eğitimi olmayan bu kişileri daha çok tecrübeye dayanan tedavi yöntemleri uygulardı.

1. kısımda: Geleneksel Tıp: Tüm Zamanların En İyisi (Geleneskel Tıbbın Temelleri, Unsurlar, Hıltlar, Mizaçlar)

3. kısında: Geleneksel Tıp’ta Çağdaş Araştırmalar, Geleneksel Tıp’ta Teşhis ve Tedavi

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